- Transient hypoparathyroidism has been defined as the combined presence of hypocalcaemia (serum calcium concentration lower than 2.0 mmol/L) and an inadequate PTH concentration in postoperative patients.3
- Chronic hypoparathyroidism has been defined as persistent hypocalcaemia and an inadequate PTH concentration 6 months after surgery.3,11
Less common and rare causes of hypoparathyroidism include:
- Autoimmune or genetic1,3
– As part of a syndrome, e.g. polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 or DiGeorge syndrome, or as isolated hypoparathyroidism due to specific gene mutations (e.g. GCM2, PTH, CASR)
- Radioactive iodine or radiation therapy12
– Hypoparathyroidism after radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism or thyroid cancer has been reported
- Metastatic disease13
– In two case reports, hypoparathyroidism occurred after metastatic infiltration of the parathyroid glands
- Bollerslev J, Rejnmark L, Marcocci C, et al. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline: Treatment of chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2015;173(2):G1-20.
- Levine MA. Normal mineral homeostasis. Interplay of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. Endocr Dev. 2003;6:14-33.
- Shoback DM, Bilezikian JP, Costa AG, et al. Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism: Etiologies and Clinical Features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(6):2300-12.
- Underbjerg L, Sikjaer T, Mosekilde L, et al. Cardiovascular and renal complications to postsurgical hypoparathyroidism: a Danish nationwide controlled historic follow-up study. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28(11):2277-85.
- Underbjerg L, Sikjaer T, Mosekilde L, et al. The Epidemiology of Nonsurgical Hypoparathyroidism in Denmark: A Nationwide Case Finding Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30(9):1738-44.
- Astor MC, Lovas K, Debowska A, et al. Epidemiology and Health-Related Quality of Life in Hypoparathyroidism in Norway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(8):3045-53.
- Clarke BL, Brown EM, Collins MT, et al. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(6):2284-99.
- Powers J, Joy K, Ruscio A, et al. Prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in the United States using a large claims database. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28(12):2570-6.
- Hadker N, Egan J, Sanders J, et al. Understanding the burden of illness associated with hypoparathyroidism reported among patients in the paradox study. Endocr Pract. 2014;20(7):671-9.
- Mitchell DM, Regan S, Cooley MR, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with hypoparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(12):4507-14.
- Shoback D. Clinical practice. Hypoparathyroidism. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(4):391-403.
- Chatterjee S. Permanent hypoparathyroidism following radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism. J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:421-2.
- Horwitz CA, Myers WP, Foote FW, Jr. Secondary malignant tumors of the parathyroid glands. Report of two cases with associated hypoparathyroidism. Am J Med. 1972;52(6):797-808.
- Bilezikian JP, Khan A, Potts JT, Jr., et al. Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target-organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(10):2317-37.